01 The original empathy map included the topics of What does the customer think & feel/see/hear/say & do?, and sections for listing pains and gains. In 2017, Who are we empathizing with? and What do they need to do? were added to the original template.
empathy-mapping/ and Gray, D., Brown, S., & Macanufo, J. (2010). Gamestorming: A Playbook for Innovators, Rulebreakers, and Changemakers. O’Reilly.
02 Prof. Simon Clatworthy developed “touch-point cards” as part of his AT-ONE research project. See, for example, Clatworthy, S. (2011). “Service Innovation Through Touch-points: Development of an Innovation Toolkit for the First Stages of New Service Development.” International Journal of Design, 5(2), 15-28.
Researchers might conduct several in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders (e.g., front- and backstage employees, customers, suppliers, etc.) or external experts to understand different perspectives on a specific subject matter. These interviews can help researchers learn more about particular expectations, experiences, products, services, goods, operations, processes, and concerns, and also about a person’s attitude, problems, needs, ideas, or environment.
In-depth interviews can be conducted in a structured, semi-structured, or unstructured manner. While strictly structured interviews are rather uncommon in design, following a semi-structured guideline helps a researcher to collect useful data. The interview questions should be structured in a “funnel” manner, starting with general and broad questions to get the participant comfortable with the interview and talking and to build rapport, then gently becoming more specific and detailed on subjects related to the research question. Interview guidelines can be customized for a project or a group of interviewees or can be based on more general templates, such as an empathy map following the interview topics of “Think & Feel,” “Hear,” “See,” “Say & Do,” “Pain,” and “Gain” to collect data for personas.  In-depth interviews are mostly done face to face so researchers can observe body language and to create a more intimate atmosphere, but can be also conducted online or by telephone.
These interviews can be supported by creating boundary objects, such as simple scribbles or mind maps as well as personas, journey maps, system maps, or other useful templates. These can be co-created with the interviewee to support a mutual understanding of rather complex issues. The tools can be paper-based, with interviewees filling out templates as part of an interview, or they can take a more tangible form, such as using game pieces or figures to visualize networks or systems. Sometimes in-depth interviews also include tasks like card sorting to understand user needs or storytelling supported by tangible touchpoint cards to visualize experiences. Touchpoint cards  are particularly useful for retrospective interviews of past experiences as they help interviewees to make their memories more tangible. During retrospective interviews, interviewees recap and evaluate their experience with a product, service, event, or brand. It is useful to not only capture the final result (a journey map created with touchpoint cards) but also to document the whole creation process followed by the interviewee.