01 Analogies are often drawn from nature – in this case, we talk about “biomimicry.”
02 Example from Marion, P., Franke, N., & Schreier, M. (2014). “Sometimes the Best Ideas Come from Outside Your Industry,” at https://hbr.org/2014/11/sometimes-the-best-ideas-come-from-outside-your-industry.
03 De Bono E. (1992). Serious Creativity Using the Power of Lateral Thinking to Create New Ideas. HarperCollins.
Let’s imagine you are faced with a new Problem A. You know that the familiar Problem B is essentially similar – or analogous – to Problem A. So, instead of thinking about Problem A, you look at existing or novel solutions to Problem B, and then adapt these solutions back to Problem A. Analogies let us adapt ideas which already exist, so this method can be a very useful kick-starter if the group is stuck. They can also make a difficult problem seem more manageable. They are especially valuable when good analogies can be prepared. 
Associations work in a similar way to analogies, but also help us reframe the problem and think about it in new ways. You could try to find associations with a randomly chosen word or image. If you were ideating on social media use, for example, you might randomly select a picture of a duck from a set. You might then ask yourself questions like “What kind of protective ‘feathers’ could cause social media to slip off a consumer, like water off a duck’s back?” “How could we help a consumer seem calm ‘above water’ while working hard to process social media ‘underwater’?” and so on.